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Self-administration of antibiotics occurs in all countries, but it is particularly problematic where the use of antimicrobials without a prescription is encouraged by the lack of laws restricting antibiotic sales or a failure to enforce the laws. To examine the types of Web sites and vendors dispensing antibiotics on the Internet, we conducted a search using 2 major search engines (Google and Yahoo) and the key words "purchase antibiotics without prescription" and "online (English only). First, although all of the included providers would sell antibiotics without a prescription, we assessed whether the supplier would sell antibiotics without any form of prescription or whether a prescription created for the purchase based on the completion of an online medical history was required. Thus, vendors targeting foreign-language speakers in the United States would have been missed. In the case of online histories to justify a prescription, we assumed that individuals are primarily purchasing antibiotics for an acute problem. There are several limitations to this study. This reservoir of antibiotics is likely to be used inappropriately-the Web sites promote self-diagnosis and self-medication, and antibiotics are likely to be used in inappropriate dosages. We classified Web sites of vendors according to several variables. The medical community and the public health and regulating agencies, as well as pharmaceutical companies, need to expand efforts to control antibiotic resistance beyond initiatives centered on prescribing behavior to include self-medication and sources of antibiotics obtained without prescription. Antibiotic resistance is a common problem, however, and has been described with numerous infectious agents and in varying contexts. Previous research suggests that a patient's past experience of care seeking and treatment use influences future expectations for treatment of respiratory tract infections. Moreover, pharmaceutical companies may need to monitor who is selling their products and through what mechanisms. Our study suggests that the opposite might be the case. Finally, in order to determine whether these sites actually provide a product that they intended to sell over the counter, we submitted an online order to 1 vendor for 6 tablets of azithromycin, 500 mg each. Unfortunately, this strategy of focusing on prescribing practices does not address the behavior of self-medication with antibiotics. Although providing over-the-counter drugs is illegal in the United States, failure to enforce US laws likely encourages these companies to sell their products to patients.